Sentinel-2B

Picture copyright
ESA

Picture caption

One of many huge sights of 2B and the opposite Sentinels is the free and open information coverage

One of many key spacecraft in Europe’s new multi-billion-euro Earth remark (EO) programme has launched from French Guiana.

Sentinel-2B carries a big digicam to picture all land surfaces and coastal waters in seen and infrared gentle.

It joins an an identical spacecraft, Sentinel-2A, already in orbit.

The duo will likely be flown on the identical path however 180 levels aside in order that they will present a whole map of Earth – clouds allowing – each 5 days.

The Sentinels represent the area phase of the European Union’s Copernicus environmental monitoring programme.

A set of sensors is being lofted over the subsequent few years to collect crucial data on the state of the planet and to accumulate the information wanted to tell and implement EU insurance policies.

Purposes vary from city planning and air-quality monitoring to monitoring deforestation and glacier retreat.

Picture copyright
Copernicus Sentinel information/ESA

Picture caption

The most important use of Sentinel-2 information is in agriculture

Sentinels 2A and 2B are, in lots of senses, the centrepiece of this effort as a result of their free and open image useful resource will virtually actually discover the widest use.

“To say they’re the ‘heartbeat’ is an effective strategy to describe them as a result of they take the pictures which might be most simply comprehensible,” Josef Aschbacher, the director of Earth remark on the European Area Company (Esa), informed BBC Information.

The lift-off aboard a Vega rocket occurred on cue at precisely 22:49 native time, Monday (01:49 GMT, 02:49 CET, Tuesday).

Ejection of the satellite tv for pc occurred about an hour later, roughly 775km above the Earth.

Controllers in Darmstadt, Germany, had been ready to choose up a sign and start early operations.

“We’ll slowly purchase the reference orbit (786km altitude) over the subsequent two weeks,” defined Bianca Hoersch, Esa’s mission supervisor for the Sentinel-2 spacecraft.

“Then now we have the commissioning part; that takes us to early June. At that time we must be producing numerous information, and after a brief ramp-up, across the October timeframe, we must be in full constellation readiness.”

Picture copyright
Copernicus Sentinel information/ESA

Picture caption

Musa Bay, Iran: Inland and coastal waters are additionally focused

The cameras on the Sentinel-2 pair are designed to see color options as small as 10m throughout.

Collectively, they are going to be producing one thing like 4 terabytes of knowledge every day. It’s a prodigious quantity that may lean on the help of a laser relay hyperlink.

For a 10-minute spell on every orbit, the spacecraft will every hearth their pictures not right down to Earth however greater into the sky, to a geostationary satellite tv for pc that may then bounce them to the bottom.

Hundreds of customers have registered to have entry to the images. Downloading them from the varied distributed servers has been made simpler by chopping the “scenes” up into extra manageable chunks.

“With Sentinel-1A, we had at the start enormous merchandise that had been 8GB to 9GB per file, which had been actually laborious to entry and obtain,” stated Dr Hoersch.

“In September, we switched to single tiles, a product of 100km by 100km, and I feel that has led to an explosion in information entry. We have had 2.7 million merchandise downloaded within the final two months.”

Picture copyright
ESA

Picture caption

Paintings of Sentinel-2: The European satellites are a part of a multi-billion-euro programme

Sentinels are designed to fly in pairs to shorten the revisit time to anyone level on Earth.

Sentinel 1 is a radar platform and has its duo totally operational in orbit since final 12 months. Sentinel 2 is the subsequent to finish its pairing; Sentinel Three, which carries predominantly ocean sensors, ought to have an orbiting pair aloft come subsequent 12 months.

Sentinels Four and 5, which research the ambiance, and Sentinel 6, to measure ocean peak, don’t have any presence in orbit but.

However though the programme continues to be to finish its preliminary roll-out, the EU and Esa have already begun to debate the right way to prolong it.

On this future-scoping, Sentinel 7 is envisaged to be a constellation of satellites that screens carbon dioxide; Sentinel eight could possibly be a thermal infrared sensor, helpful for understanding phenomena reminiscent of drought; and Sentinel 9 is likely to be polar mission, both to review the extent and thickness of ice surfaces or two present higher climate imaging and communications at excessive latitudes.

“However I ought to stress that every one these candidate missions are a piece in progress and should be consolidated by way of an in depth session course of, each on the consumer facet and on the technical facet,” stated Dr Aschbacher.

“And we additionally need to put collectively an entire scheme, not simply on content material however but in addition when it comes to price and funding.”


Picture copyright
Copernicus

Picture caption

Area imagery can be utilized to make density maps for city planning – on this case, Munich

  • Agriculture: Gathering crop statistics and yield assessments
  • City: Planning city-wide infrastructure enhancements
  • Forests: Checking de- or re-forested areas for treaty functions
  • Biodiversity: Understanding the habitats the place wildlife exist
  • Well being: Monitoring circumstances associated with disease spread
  • Water: Evaluating water physique extents for flood assessments
  • Catastrophe: Making harm maps following main earthquakes
  • Cryosphere: Mapping snow fields and glacier melting

The European-funded Sentinel sequence

  • Sentinel-1: Radar satellite tv for pc that may see the Earth’s floor in all weathers
  • Sentinel-2: Multi-wavelength detectors to review principally land modifications
  • Sentinel-Three: Much like S2, however tuned to look at ocean properties and behavior
  • Sentinel-Four: Excessive-orbiting sensor to measure atmospheric gases
  • Sentinel-5: Low-orbiting atmospheric sensor to assist monitor air high quality
  • Sentinel-6: Future model of the long-running Jason sea-surface peak sequence

What’s the Copernicus programme?

  • EU challenge that’s being procured with European Area Company assist
  • Pulls collectively all Earth-monitoring information, from area and the bottom
  • Will use a spread of spacecraft – some already up there, others but to fly
  • Anticipated to be invaluable to scientists finding out local weather change
  • Essential for catastrophe response – earthquakes, floods, fires and so on
  • Information will even assist design and implement EU insurance policies: fishing quotas and so on

Picture copyright
Copernicus Sentinel information/ESA

Picture caption

Sentinel-2A’s image of Lake Amadeus in Australia’s Northern Territory

Jonathan.Amos-INTERNET@bbc.co.uk and observe me on Twitter: @BBCAmos